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1AccuracyAccuracy in journalism refers to the extent to which information presented aligns with facts and truth. It involves thorough fact-checking, verification of sources, and elimination of biases or errors. Accurate reporting fosters trust and credibility among audiences, upholding journalism’s integrity and its role in informing the public objectively and reliably.
2AffordancesAffordances in the context of media technologies refers to the capabilities and possibilities that a particular tool, platform, or medium offers for storytelling, audience engagement, and information dissemination. Understanding these affordances helps journalists leverage technology effectively to enhance their reporting, reach wider audiences, and adapt to evolving media landscapes.
3AlgorithmAlgorithms are step-by-step procedures or instructions designed to solve problems or perform tasks. They are fundamental to computer science, guiding processes in software, data analysis, and artificial intelligence. Algorithms define the logic and sequence of operations, enabling efficient computation and decision-making in various fields, from mathematics to machine learning.
4ClaimA claim in fact-checking is a statement or assertion made by an individual, organization, or source. Fact-checkers scrutinize these claims to verify their accuracy, assessing evidence and context to determine if they are supported by credible information. The aim is to ascertain the truthfulness of the statement for public transparency and accountability.
5Credibility (in news)Credibility in news refers to the trustworthiness and reliability of information conveyed by media sources. It encompasses factors such as accuracy, impartiality, transparency, and adherence to journalistic ethics. A news outlet’s credibility is crucial for audience trust, shaping perceptions, and influencing informed decision-making in society.
6DebunkingDebunking involves exposing falsehoods or misconceptions by providing evidence-based refutations. Fact-checkers scrutinize claims, rumors, or myths, uncovering inaccuracies through thorough research and analysis. Debunking aims to dispel misinformation, promoting truth and critical thinking. It helps safeguard public discourse by challenging misleading narratives and fostering informed decision-making.
7Digital source criticism (DSC)Digital source criticism as an attitude and practice in journalism refers to an examination of digital information sources that somewhat diverges from the dominant approaches of fact-checking and verification. Instead of relying on binary notions such as true/false, fake/real, and trustworthy/untrustworthy in the process of journalistic knowledge production, it adheres to a more constructivist, interpretivist approach, emphasizing that every source or source material has its tendency affected by the context of its origin.
8DisinformationDisinformation in news production involves the deliberate spread of false or misleading information to manipulate public opinion, undermine trust in credible sources, or advance specific agendas. It can distort facts, misrepresent events, or fabricate narratives, posing significant challenges to the integrity and reliability of news reporting.
9EpistemologyEpistemology in journalistic practice pertains to the study of knowledge acquisition and validation within the field. It examines how journalists gather, evaluate, and disseminate information to construct news stories. Epistemological considerations encompass methodologies, sources’ reliability, and ethical standards, shaping the integrity and credibility of journalistic reporting in informing the public.
10Ex-ante fact-checkingEx-ante fact-checking refers to the practice of information verification in newsrooms prior to publishing news stories. Ex-ante fact-checking is mostly practiced by the journalists engaged in traditional news reporting to ensure the factual accuracy of the stories.
11Ex-post fact-checking Ex-post fact-checking or political fact-checking refers to verification practices of professional fact-checkers after the information have been published by public information channels. Ex-post fact-checking involves identifying and prioritising publicly made truth claims worthy of checking, verifying or refuting them using respectable reference sources and field experts and publishing and disseminating reports about the veracity value of the selected claims.
12External source criticismIn historiography, where the source criticism originates from as an approach, ‘external’ source criticism focuses on the creation, appearance, and authenticity of a source.
15Fake news
16HermeneuticsHermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially of texts. It involves understanding the meaning of language, symbols, and expressions within their context, considering historical, cultural, and subjective perspectives. Originating in biblical and legal analysis, it now applies broadly across humanities, including literature, philosophy, and social sciences.
17Horizon of understandingAccording to Gadamer, a “horizon of understanding” refers to the range of vision that includes everything that can be seen from a particular vantage point. In hermeneutics, it signifies the framework of assumptions, beliefs, and preconceptions that shape how individuals interpret and understand texts and experiences.
19Information disorder
20Information infrastructure
21Institutional factsAn institutional fact is a phenomenon that exists within human societies due to collective recognition and acceptance of certain rules, norms, or practices. Unlike brute facts, which exist independently of human beliefs, institutional facts rely on social constructs, such as money, marriage, or governments, and are sustained by collective agreement.
22Internal source criticismIn historiography, internal source criticism refers to an assessment of the evidential value that can be attributed to a particular source: what does the source have to say about the topic
23Interpretation (in SC)
24Interpretative transparency
25Logical positivism
27Media and information literacy (MIL)
30Network reading
31Omission (in SC)
32Positionality in (SC)
33Relations (in SC)
34Reliability (in news)
37Source criticism (SC)
38Source material
39Synthetic actor
40Technical stack
41Tendency (in SC)
43The double logic of sources