New report on the evolution in climate policies and governance systems

The GreenGov team have just published a research report that provides an outline and comparative analysis of the evolution in climate policies and governance systems of four cities with ambitious climate goals and strategies; three Scandinavian cities, Copenhagen, Gothenburg and Oslo; and one South African city; Cape Town.

In each city, we explore the evolution in climate goals, strategies, policy and institutional designs over two decades and how these materialize in distinct approaches to urban climate governance and co-creation. Our aim is to shed light on different – and similar – paths to urban climate governance among forerunning cities with bold climate goals i.e. in terms of embracing a coherent climate policy for mitigation, adaptation, climate equity and sustainable urban futures.

The study adopts a polycentric governing perspective (multilevel and multi-actor). The empirical findings from the four city case studies are based on reviews of key climate change-relevant policy documents and websites (through 2019) and a set of key informant interviews. In each of the cities, we find that urban climate governance is manifest in a mix of traditional governance mechanisms, and new, more innovative co-creational instruments through hybrid forms of governance.

The study brings up some distinctive and important differences in the urban climate policies and governing approaches between the three Scandinavian cities and Cape Town, but the study also reveals many similarities in approaches across all the four cities. All the cities engage in diverse networks and co-creational arenas for shared climate responses at different levels and scales.

Drawing upon the comparative experiences of urban climate governance all these forerunning cities, ‘eight essentials for effective, sustainable and fair urban climate governance and leadership’ are suggested that might bring cities onto pathways towards climate transformation.


Hofstad, Hege & Vedeld, Trond (eds.) (2020): Urban climate governance and co-creation – In Cape Town, Copenhagen, Gothenburg and Oslo, NIBR Report 2020:8, The Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo

Copenhagen no longer leading the line?

In a recent feature article in the Danish daily Politiken, GreenGov team members Karsten Bruun Hansen, PhD and Annika Agger, PhD express concern for Copenhagen’s declining status as a world leader in climate transition and adaptation.

In a Nordic research project on strategic climate leadership, we’ve uncovered the political leadership processes that have made Copenhagen a leading star in international climate politics. But the research, which also takes a closer look at Oslo and Gothenburg, show us that Copenhagen today is still profiled [internationally] on political decisions that were made 10 years ago. [Translated]


Hansen & Agger (2019): Københavns grønne førertrøje blegner,, Nov 20 2019

GreenGov at C40 in Copenhagen

This october, several members of the GreenGov research team attended the C40 World Mayors Summit 2019 in Copenhagen.

Senior researchers Trond Vedeld, Hege Hofstad and Marianne Millstein have summarized their immpressions from the summit in three blog posts on NIBR’s City Blog (In Norwegian):