Klær og miljø: Innkjøp, gjenbruk og vask

Sammendrag

Rapporten diskuterer klesanskaffelser og vedlikehold i dagens Norge basert på en spørreundersøkelse om bærekraftig forbruk. Respondentene rapporterte at de hadde anskaffet i gjennomsnitt 23,5 plagg i løpet av det siste året. De yngste mennene 18-19 år og alle kvinner frem til 59 år anskaffer like mye klær. Menn anskaffer færre ettersom de ble eldre og de eldste over 60 år anskaffer minst. Kvinner derimot holder samme nivået, 28-29 plagg uavhengig av alder frem til den eldste aldersgruppen. Kvinnene over 60 år anskaffer noe mindre (totalt 20 plagg). De aller fleste (20,2 av 23,5) plagg kjøpes nye. Dette tilsvarer 86% av klærne. Det nest vanligste måten å skaffe klær er å få de som gaver med 2 plagg per person.

I gjennomsnitt er det mindre enn ett plagg per person som er kjøpt brukt (0,6), og tilsvarende mindre enn ett plagg som er arvet (0,7). Totalt utgjør dette 1,3 gjenbrukte plagg per respondent per år. De unge kvinnene mellom 18 og 29 år anskaffet størst andel av gjenbrukte klærne med 12%. Klesvask har stor påvirkning på miljøbelastning og utgjør en vesentlig faktor for klesforbrukets miljøbelastning totalt sett. Ikke overaskende og helt i tråd med tidligere undersøkelser vaskes det kroppsnære plagget trøye, oftere enn gensere, og ullgensere og ulltrøyer sjeldnere enn tilsvarende plagg i bomull. Forbrukere som er opptatt av miljø vasker sitt ulltøy sjeldnere enn andre. En tilsvarende sammenheng finnes ikke for bomull.

Klikk her for å lese hele rapporten (oda.oslomet.no).

Summary

This report discusses clothing acquisition and maintenance in Norway based on a survey on sustainable consumption. Respondents reported that they had acquired an average of 23.5 garments during the past year. The youngest men (18-29 years) and all women up to age 59 purchase the same amount of clothing. Men acquire fewer as they grow older and the oldest age group over 60 years acquire the least. Women, on the other hand, hold the same level, 28-29 garments regardless of age up to the oldest age group. The women over the age of 60 purchase somewhat less (a total of 20 garments). The vast majority (20.2 out of 23.5) garments are purchased new. This corresponds to 86% of the clothes. The next most common way to get clothes is to receive them as gifts, with 2 garments per person. On average, less than one garment per person is purchased used (0.6), and correspondingly less than one garment that is received as hand-me-down (0.7). In total, this represents 1.3 second-hand garments per respondent per year. The young women between the ages of 18 and 29 acquired the largest share of reused clothing by 12%. Laundry has a major influence on environmental impact and is a significant factor for overall environmental impact of clothing consumption. Not surprisingly and completely in line with previous research, the next-to-skin garments are washed more often than sweaters, and woolen undershirts and sweaters are washed less often than similar cotton garments. Consumers concerned about the environment wash their woolen clothes less frequently than others. A similar connection does not exist for laundering frequency of cotton.

The full report is only available in Norwegian.

Jul – pynt, gaver, klær og mat

Annechen Bahr Bugge, Ingun Grimstad Klepp, Anita Borch, Alexander Schjøll, Kirsi Laitala og Vilde Anine Rydal Haugrønning

Sammendrag

I denne rapporten er det sett nærmere på hvilken betydning og rolle pynt, gaver, klær og mat har i juleritualet. Resultatene av spørreundersøkelsen viser at hvordan vi feirer jul er preget av stabilitet og relativt små endringer. De aller fleste deltar i julefeiringen. Syv av ti ga uttrykk for at julen hadde stor betydning for dem. Det respondentene satt mest pris på ved ritualet var det sosiale samværet, maten og måltidene og tradisjonene. Langt færre beskrev det kristne julebudskapet eller gavene som betydningsfulle. Samlet viser rapporten at den stemningen og det sosiale samværet som mange sier de setter pris på ved julen, nettopp skapes gjennom forbrukspraksiser som å kjøpe og lage gaver, vaske, rulle og stryke, bake, koke og steke, pynte og dekke bord, kle seg til høytiden, sette god mat på bordet og dele den med kjente og kjære. Rapporten viser dessuten at vi ikke bare er sammen, men også er sammen på en annen måte, en bestemt måte nokså annerledes enn i hverdagen.

Klikk her for å lese hele rapporten (oda.oslomet.no).

Summary

This report looks at the meaning and role of decorations, gifts, clothing and food in the Christmas ritual. The results show that the way we celebrate Christmas in Norway is characterized by stability and small changes. The vast majority of people attend the Christmas celebration. Seven out of ten stated that Christmas was important to them. Social gatherings, food and meals, as well as traditions, were the most appreciated by the respondents. Far fewer described the Christian Christmas message or gifts as important. Overall, the report shows that the atmosphere and sociality that many say they appreciate at Christmas is precisely created through consumer practices, such as buying and making gifts, washing, rolling and ironing, baking, cooking and roasting, decorating, dressing up for the holidays and sharing meals with known and loved ones. The report also shows that we are not only together, but also together in a different way at Christmas, a certain way quite different from everyday life.

The full report is only available in Norwegian.

Wardrobe sizes and clothing lifespans

Ingun Grimstad Klepp, Kirsi Laitala and Vilde Haugrønning

Abstract

It is easy to assume that a large wardrobe is characterized by excessive clothing and high acquisition, with little use of each garment and thus a big environmental impact. However, it is also possible to think the opposite; that the large wardrobe is a result of clothes remaining in use for a long time, that disposal happens rarely, while acquisition can be normal or even low. Whatever the reason, in a large wardrobe it is more likely that clothes become old before the technical life expires. This is because many of the garments are seldom used. Small wardrobes are often presented as favourable for both people and the environment, and as part of an ecological-friendly lifestyle, but we know little about the interaction between wardrobe sizes, longevity and the environmental impact.

In this paper, we investigate this relationship based on survey material from five countries; China, Germany, Japan, UK and the USA. We find that consumers with large wardrobes use their clothes longer, but consumers with small wardrobes use their clothes more often before they are disposed. We conclude that a good utilization of resources is possible with both large and small wardrobes, but in different ways. As we work towards more sustainable clothing consumption, we need to approach consumers differently, in order to give constructive advice to all.

This is a conference article from the 3rdPLATE 2019 Conference. Click here to find the full conference proceedings including this article (depositonce.tu-berlin.de).

Global Differences in Consumer Practices Affect Clothing Lifespans

Kirsi Laitala & Ingun Grimstad Klepp

The current systems of consumption and production cause long-lasting social-ecological damage and a fundamental change seems inevitable, if livelihoods of present and future generations are to be preserved. The lifetimes of products and their performance concerning reliability, functionality, re-usability and recyclability are core issues in the transformation from a linear to a more sustainable circular economy. While discussions on product lifetimes have been going on for a number of years, the topic has come to the forefront of current (political, scientific & societal) debates due to its interconnectedness with a number of recent prominent movements, such as the circular economy, ecodesign and collaborative consumption. The 3rd international PLATE conference (Product Lifetimes And The Environment), held from 18-20 June 2019 in Berlin, Germany, addressed product lifetimes in the context of sustainability. The proceedings of this conference present a great variety of significant research on how to enable more sustainable practices of designing, producing, using, re-pur-posing and recycling products and on how to assess the sustainability of these endeavours. The authors work in inter- and transdisciplinary teams that operate at the crossroads of engineering, design, social sciences and environmental sciences.

Klikk her for å lese mer (depositonce.tu-berlin.de)


KRUS final report: Enhancing local value chains in Norway

Ingun Grimstad Klepp, Tone Skårdal Tobiasson, Vilde Haugrønning, Gunnar Vittersø, Lise Grøva, Torhild Kvingedal, Ingvild Espelien & Elin Kubberød

From its initiation in 2015 to the end in 2019, KRUS had two goals: to improve the market for and the value of Norwegian wool, and survey the opportunities for local production in a move towards a goal of sustainability in the fashion sector. On a larger scale, KRUS has looked at how we can re-establish an understanding of the connection between the raw material and the finished product within the textile industry and among consumers. It is critical to understand this connection, both to ensure quality products and to reach the market potential for Norwegian wool.

To restore the understanding of “where clothes come from” is also at the heart of challenges currently facing the textile industry. The consumption and production of textiles faces major challenges and changes in the future. Today the industry is characterized by low control and little knowledge, while growth in quantity, environmental impact, as well as stress on animals and humans is high. KRUS has contributed to the debate on sustainable clothing by focusing on local value-chains and locally produced apparel.

The focus on Norwegian wool and the specific qualities of the different breeds has played an essential role for Norwegian textile tradition and dress culture, and a better understanding of this has been essential to the project. An important challenge for Norwegian wool is that it has not been marketed with any kind of label of origin. Private actors have thus entered the field and developed their own private labels for Norwegian wool. In addition, there are few products on the market containing Norwegian wool beyond hand-knitting yarn, which means that availability has been limited.

Throughout the project, we have seen a shift, especially for older sheep breeds, which have posed a special challenge. Their wool is central in keeping Norwegian handicrafts alive, but the quality on some of the wool types has been declining. For others, the challenge is that much of the wool is not taken care of, and constitutes a waste problem. Through breeding-projects, work collaboration, looking closely at labelling systems and business models, KRUS has addressed these challenges.

Click here to read the full report (oda.oslomet.no)

Leve av å reparere? En studie av økonomien i reparasjonsbransjen for klær og hvitevarer

Vilde Haugrønning, Ingun Grimstad Klepp, Pål Strandbakken, Kirsi Laitala og Harald Throne-Holst

Sammendrag

Rapporten undersøker reparasjonsbransjen for klær og hvitevarer og aktørenes synspunkter på barrierer og muligheter for utvikling av tjenestene. Det er viktig å få en bredere forståelse for hvilke muligheter og barrierer de opplever i sitt arbeid med reparasjon, fordi dette kan være en viktig del av sirkulær økonomi og bærekraftig forbruk. De aller fleste reparasjoner foregår privat, og forbrukernes holdninger er også viktige for bransjen. Derfor har vi trukket forbrukernes oppfatninger inn i analysen basert på en spørreundersøkelse. Rapporten diskuterer dermed ikke bare hva som kan styrke en bransje, men også hva som kan bidra til at flere produkter blir reparert og dermed brukes lenger.

Den første delen av rapporten er en litteraturgjennomgang. Vi presenterer tidligere studier av bransjen i Norge, samt svenske erfaringer med redusert merverdiavgift. Videre følger en analyse av 15 kvalitative intervjuer med aktører i reparasjonsbransjen, 10 innen klær og 5 innen hvitevarer. I analysen har vi også inkludert datamateriale fra spørreundersøkelsen med forbrukere. Reparasjonsbransjen er svært sammensatt og består delvis av store bedrifter hvor reparasjon er en forsvinnende liten del av deres virksomhet, og av små enmanns bedrifter hvor reparasjon kan være, men ikke alltid er en viktig del av virksomheten. Likevel er det flere likhetstrekk for hva som er barrierer og muligheter for bransjen. Blant barrierer finner vi at den gjennomgående lave prisen på produkter og lav kvalitet bidrar til liten lønnsomhet for reparasjoner, og det er svært liten betalingsvilje blant forbrukere for reparasjonstjenester. Videre er tilgangen på kompetent personale en stor utfordring, som forventes å bli større i årene fremover.

Mulighetene ligger i potensielle samarbeid mellom tilretteleggere og tilbydere for reparasjoner, og spre kunnskapom reklamasjon og rettigheter ved kjøp av varer. Både bransjen og forbrukerne er enige om at bedre kvalitet på produkter er et utgangspunkt for økt produktlevetid, og dette vil også øke antall lønnsomme reparasjoner. I tillegg ser vi også et behov for at mindre bedrifter som tilbyr tilpassede produkter og ulike tjenester som forlenger produktlevetiden, får økonomiske tilskudd slik at de blir mer rustet til å bidra i overgangen til et mer miljøvennlig forbruk.

Klikk her for å lese hele rapporten (oda.oslomet.no).

Summary

This report explores repairs services for clothing and white goods by looking at financial aspects and drivers and barriers for service development. It is important to gain a broader understanding of the drivers and barriers experienced by actors in repair work, as this can be an important part of the circular economy and more sustainable consumption. The vast majority of repairs are private, and consumer attitudes are important to this industry. Therefore, we included consumer perceptions in the analysis based on a national representative survey in Norway. The report discusses not only what can strengthen the repair industry, but also how more products can be repaired and used longer.

The first part of the report is a literature review. We present previous studies of the industry in Norway, as well as Swedish experiences with reduced value added tax. Furthermore, an analysis of 15 qualitative interviews with actors in the repair industry follows, 10 in clothing and 5 in white goods. In the analysis, we also included data from the consumer survey. The repair industry is very complex and partly consists of large companies where repair is a small part of their business, and of small one-man businesses where repair can be, but is not always, an important part of the business. Nevertheless, the barriers and facilitators for the industry are often similar. Among barriers, we find that the consistently low price of products, and low quality, contribute to low profitability in repair work, and there is very little willingness to pay among consumers for repair services. Furthermore, access to competent staff is a major challenge, which is expected to increase in the years ahead.

The drivers lie in potential collaboration between repairers and providers of repair, and dissemination about complaint and warranty rights when purchasing goods. Both the industry and consumers agree that better quality of products is a starting point for increased product lifespans, and this will also increase the number of profitable repairs. In addition, we also see a need for smaller companies that offer customized products and various services that extend their product life to receive financial grants so that they are more equipped to contribute to the transition towards more sustainable consumption.

A Louse in Court: Norwegian Knitted Sweaters with ‘Lus’ on Big-Time Criminals

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Introduction

Early one morning in 2008 I was sitting in make-up for a Norwegian television show and felt the trained hands of the make-up smooth out my face with paint. It wasn’t the first time I’d been there. With a population of 5 million there are not many clothing researchers to choose between in Norway, and with plenty of weather and outdoor activities, clothes are important. Questions such as how to dress children for physical activities outdoors are equally relevant every autumn and before every winter vacation and every Easter, when Norwegians go to their cabins, and the ideal is to spend as much time as possible outdoors. I have talked about the choice between wool and synthetic fibres and also about traditional Norwegian knitwear, but this time the subject was somewhat different.


The Norwegian Islamist Arfan Bhattis stood, as the first person in Norway to be accused of violating a new terror clause in the Penal Code. The striking thing for the Norwegian press was that he appeared in court in a Norwegian knitted sweater, a so-called lusekofte [lit: lice jacket], and he wasn’t the first. Before him, the accused in the biggest robbery in Norwegian history and the accused in the most discussed triple homicide had dressed in the lusekofte in court.

You can find this essay in the book Fashion Crimes: Dressing for Deviance, edited by Joanne Turney, here (bloomsburyfashioncentral.com).

Uniformity Without Uniforms: Dressing School Children in Norway

Ingun Grimstad Klepp, Kirsi Laitala and Silje Elisabeth Skuland

Abstract

This chapter discusses the relationship between Norwegian schools’ ideals of equality and the way in which school clothes are regulated. Interviews with a teacher in a transitional language learning group for newly arrived immigrant children, as well as with children and parents in immigrant families, are used to discuss whether school clothes inhibit or promote integration. The material shows great willingness of children to dress like the others, as well as understanding that clothing consumption is essential for integration in school, and thus society. At the same time, this is not easily achievable either economically, culturally or practically. Little is done to make Norwegian schools inclusive in this field of consumption.

This article is from the book Inclusive Consumption: Immigrants’ Access to and Use of Public and Private Goods and Services, edited by Anita Borch, Ivan Harsløf, Ingun Grimstad Klepp and Kirsi Laitala.

Click here to read the full article (idunn.no).

Dressing a Demanding Body to Fit In: Clean and Decent with Ostomy or Chronic Skin Disease

Kirsi Laitala and Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Abstract

This article discusses what kind of strategies people with a stoma or various chronic skin conditions, such as psoriasis oratopic dermatitis, use to find clothes that fit and enable them to fit in. Based on qualitative interviews in Norway, we study how they manage to dress with a demanding body, a poor market and limited economic resources. This includes describing how purchases take place, which clothes fit, how much clothing is needed, and which laundry practices are used. Their main strategy was to reduce the requirements for their own appearance rather than to cleanliness and body odours. If they were unable to appear appropriately dressed, as a minimum odourless and stain-free, they reduced their participation in social life.

Click here to read the full article (cogitatiopress.com).

Microfibres from apparel and home textiles: Prospects for including microplastics in environmental sustainability assessment

Beverly Henry, Kirsi Laitala & Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Abstract

Textiles release fibres to the environment during production, use, and at end-of-life disposal. Approximately two-thirds of all textile items are now synthetic, dominated by petroleum-based organic polymers such as polyester,polyamide and acrylic. Plastic microfibres (b5 mm) and nanofibres (b100 nm) have been identified in ecosystems in all regions of the globe and have been estimated to comprise up to 35% of primary microplastics in marine environments, a major proportion of microplastics on coastal shorelines and to persist for decades in soils treated with sludge from waste water treatment plants.

In this paper we present a critical review of factors affecting the release from fabrics of microfibres, and of the risks for impacts on ecological systems and potentially on human health. This review is used as a basis for exploring the potential to include a metric for microplastic pollution in tools that have been developed to quantify the environmental performance of apparel and home textiles. We conclude that the simple metric of mass or number of microfibres released combined with data on their persistence in the environment, could provide a useful interim mid-point indicator in sustainability assessment tools to support monitoring and mitigation strategies for microplastic pollution. Identified priority research areas include: (1) Standardised analytical methods for textile microfibres and nanofibres; (2) Ecotoxicological studies using environmentally realistic concentrations; (3) Studies tracking the fate of microplastics in complex food webs; and (4) Refined indicators for microfibre impacts in apparel and home textile sustainability assessment tools.

Click here to read the full article (oda.oslomet.no)