Dobbel dose for Klesforskning

To artikler fra Klesforskning har blitt akseptert av tidsskriftet Fibres og er tilgjengelig på nett. De to artiklene er Reducing plastic: Opportunities and obstacles for coarser wool in consumer goods og Natural and sustainable? Consumers’ textile fiber preferences.

Mer enn halvparten av teamet i Klesforsknings-gruppen har bidratt til disse to kapitlene: Kirsi Laitala, Anna Schytte Sigaard (forfatter på begge artiklene), Lisbeth Løvbak Berg og Ingun Grimstad Klepp – kapittelet om å redusere plast er skrevet sammen med tre fra universitetet i Bielsko-Biala. I den første artikkelen presenteres funn som viser at på produktnivå skaper de mange iboende egenskapene til ull muligheter for produktutvikling og bærekraftsforbedringer, og at bruk av grovere ull representerer en mulighet for å erstatte plast i mange bruksområder. Dette ble gjort ved hjelp av en SWOT-analyse (Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats) av resultater fra en skrivebordsstudie og intervjuer med produsenter av produkter laget av ull, samt dokumenter knyttet til ull, avfall, tekstiler og plast i sammenheng med politikk.

Den andre artikkelen ser på syntetiske kontra naturlige fibre, forbrukerpreferanser, deres syn på bærekraft og enda viktigere, forbrukernes vilje til å redusere forbruket. Interessant nok foretrekker ikke bare norske forbrukere ull, de mener også at ull er det mest bærekraftige valget, med polyester som det minst bærekraftige. Dette er det stikk motsatte av hva dagens vanligste måleverktøy, Higg Material Sustainability Index, forteller oss.

Les mer om disse to artiklene her.

CHANGE: Anledning i forandring

Er uformelt og formelt på vei for å smelte sammen? Dette spørsmålet dukker opp både i forskning og når man ser på forbrukertrender for klær og mote.

Som en del av CHANGE-prosjektet er et spor som utforskes en tilbakevending til klær som er mer allsidige og mindre definert av anledningen. Her utforskes en «miks og match»-tilnærming, som ser ut til å gi gjenklang med et marked i etterkant av vårt møte med Covid-19.

Hugo Boss lanserte nylig den strikkede dressen i samarbeid med Woolmark, en ny strikketeknologi med fireveis stretch som gjør dressen ekstremt allsidig og gir brukeren en bevegelsesfrihet som absolutt tillater litt fritidsaktivitet etter jobb uten å nødvendigvis måtte skifte. Samtidig blir fritidsklær mer formelle og en utendørs vindjakke har nå til og med en plass i bymiljøer, hørte vi under det nylige IWTO møtet i Nürnberg i Tyskland (mer her), hvor Francesco Magri, Woolmark, snakket om «den nye dressen». Les mer om dette på engelsk her.

VikingGull: historie og mote vevet sammen

Mote møtte kulturhistorie i prosjektet VikingGull, og sammen ble de vevet til et vakkert ulltekstil, som fant veien til museumsutstillinger og NRK-programmet Symesterskapet som fremtidens mest bærekraftige materiale.

I sammenheng med Oslo Runway høsten 2022, debuterte skuespiller Iselin Shumba på motemoloen som var satt opp i en utemøbelfabrikk langt inni Finnskogen. Helt tilfeldig var jeg der som journalist og helt tilfeldig hadde jeg også på meg Oleana-jakken jeg hadde brukt under innspillingen av Symesterskapet episoden hvor Iselin Shumba var «kunde» som ønsket seg en frakk hun kunne ha på seg på sine ukentlige «sitte foran Stortinget for klima» demonstrasjon, som foregår uansett vær og vind. Hennes ønske var at stoffet i denne frakken skulle være så bærekraftig som mulig, og det var derfor NRK hadde ringt meg. Hva kunne det være? Noe fra en mystisk sopp eller resirkulert et eller annet? At jeg trakk frem akkurat VikingGull stoffet, sjokkerte først men etter en lang samtale så de poenget. At vi i tillegg hadde igjen flere hundre meter med dette stoffet etter at VikingGull prosjektet var avsluttet, og NRK dermed kunne få tilgang på det, var selvsagt også et godt innsalgsargument. De andre soppbaserte eller resirkulerte materialene var det derimot nærmest umulig å oppdrive for en tv-sending.

Her er jeg i Oleana-jakken på Symesterskapet, sammen med programlederne. (Foto: NRK)

Poenget var uansett, at da Iselin Shumba så meg i Oleana-jakken, kom hun nærmest løpende bort til meg og fortalte at jakken som hun bruker ofte både foran Stortinget og i andre sammenhenger, har hun fått så mye skryt for. Og særlig hver gang hun forteller historien om bakgrunnen for stoffet, blir folk fascinert.

Vil du vite mer om den historien, kan du lese mer her, på engelsk. Prosjektet VikingGull var et KreaNord prosjekt, og et samarbeid mellom Norwegian Fashion Institute (nå NF&TA), SIFO, Historisk museum og NICE Fashion, og Norge samarbeidet i prosjektet med Island. Fra Norge var Selbu spinneri, Hillesvåg Ullvarefabrikk, Krivi Vev og Sjølingstad viktige aktører for å få på plass «verdens mest bærekraftig» tekstil.

Acoustic Performance of Sound Absorbing Materials Produced from Wool of Local Mountain Sheep

Katarzyna Kobiela-Mendrek, Marcin Bączek, Jan Broda, Monika Rom, Ingvild Espelien and Ingun Klepp

Abstract

Wool of mountain sheep, treated nowadays as a waste or troublesome byproduct of sheep husbandry, was used for the production of sound-absorbing materials. Felts of two different thicknesses were produced from loose fibres. Additionally, two types of yarn,ring-spun and core rug, were obtained. The yarns were used for the production of tufted fabric with cut and loop piles. During the examinations, basic parameters of the obtained materials were determined. Then, according to standard procedure with the use of impedance tube, the sound absorption coefficient was measured, and the noise reduction coefficient (NRC) was calculated. It was revealed that felt produced from coarse wool exhibits high porosity, and its sound-absorbing capacity is strongly related to the felt thickness. For thicker felt the NRC achieved0.4, which is comparable with the NRC of commercial ceiling tiles. It was shown that the crucial parameter influencing the sound absorption of the tufted fabrics was the pile height. For both types of yarns, when the height of the pile was increased from 12 to 16 mm, the NRC increased from 0.4 to 0.42. The manufactured materials made from local wool possess good absorption capacity, similar to commercial products usually made from more expensive wool types. The materials look nice and can be used for noise reduction as inner acoustic screens, panels, or carpets.

Click here to read the full article (mdpi.com).

Environmental impacts associated with the production, use, and end-of-life of a woollen garment

S.G. Wiedemann, L. Biggs, B. Nebel, K. Bauch, K. Laitala, I.G. Klepp, P.G. Swan and K. Watson.

Abstract

Purpose

The textiles industry is a substantial contributor to environmental impacts through the production, processing, use, and end-of-life of garments. Wool is a high value, natural, and renewable fibre that is used to produce a wide range of garments, from active leisure wear to formal wear, and represents a small segment of the global fashion industry. Woollen garments are produced by long, global value chains extending from the production of ‘greasy’ wool on sheep farms, through processing to garment make-up, retail, consumer use, and end-of-life. To date, there have been limited life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on the environmental impacts of the full supply chain or use phase of garments, with the majority of wool LCA studies focusing on a segment of the supply chain. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap via a cradle-to-grave LCA of a woollen garment.

Methods

This study investigated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fossil fuel energy, and water stress associated with the production, use, and end-of-life of a lightweight woollen sweater (300-g wool), together with inventory results for freshwater consumption and land occupation. Primary datasets were used for the wool production and wool processing stages, while primary datasets relating to consumer garment use were supplemented with literature data. Impacts were calculated and reported per garment wear event.

Results and discussion

Impacts per wear were 0.17 (± 0.02) kg CO2-e GHG, 0.88 (± 0.18) MJ fossil energy, and 0.96 (± 0.42) H2O-e water stress. Fossil fuel energy was dominated by wool processing, with substantial contributions of energy also arising from retail and garment care. Greenhouse gas emissions from wool production (farming) contributed the highest proportion of impacts, followed by lower contributions from processing and garment care. Contributions to water stress varied less across the supply chain, with major contributions arising from production, processing, and garment use.

Conclusions

Opportunities to improve the efficiency of production, processing, and garment care exist, which could also reduce resource use and impacts from wool. However, the number of garment wear events and length of garment lifetime was found to be the most influential factor in determining garment impacts. This indicated that consumers have the largest capacity to influence the sustainability of their woollen garments by maximising the active garment lifespan which will reduce overall impacts.

Click here to read the full article (springer.com).

KRUS final report: Enhancing local value chains in Norway

Ingun Grimstad Klepp, Tone Skårdal Tobiasson, Vilde Haugrønning, Gunnar Vittersø, Lise Grøva, Torhild Kvingedal, Ingvild Espelien & Elin Kubberød

From its initiation in 2015 to the end in 2019, KRUS had two goals: to improve the market for and the value of Norwegian wool, and survey the opportunities for local production in a move towards a goal of sustainability in the fashion sector. On a larger scale, KRUS has looked at how we can re-establish an understanding of the connection between the raw material and the finished product within the textile industry and among consumers. It is critical to understand this connection, both to ensure quality products and to reach the market potential for Norwegian wool.

To restore the understanding of “where clothes come from” is also at the heart of challenges currently facing the textile industry. The consumption and production of textiles faces major challenges and changes in the future. Today the industry is characterized by low control and little knowledge, while growth in quantity, environmental impact, as well as stress on animals and humans is high. KRUS has contributed to the debate on sustainable clothing by focusing on local value-chains and locally produced apparel.

The focus on Norwegian wool and the specific qualities of the different breeds has played an essential role for Norwegian textile tradition and dress culture, and a better understanding of this has been essential to the project. An important challenge for Norwegian wool is that it has not been marketed with any kind of label of origin. Private actors have thus entered the field and developed their own private labels for Norwegian wool. In addition, there are few products on the market containing Norwegian wool beyond hand-knitting yarn, which means that availability has been limited.

Throughout the project, we have seen a shift, especially for older sheep breeds, which have posed a special challenge. Their wool is central in keeping Norwegian handicrafts alive, but the quality on some of the wool types has been declining. For others, the challenge is that much of the wool is not taken care of, and constitutes a waste problem. Through breeding-projects, work collaboration, looking closely at labelling systems and business models, KRUS has addressed these challenges.

Click here to read the full report (oda.oslomet.no)

Nisseluelandet—The Impact of Local Clothes for the Survival of a Textile Industry in Norway

Ingun Grimstad Klepp & Kirsi Laitala

Abstract

The article discusses the importance of local clothing for the survival of the Norwegian textile industry. It draws upon stakeholder interviews, as well as desktop research. Local clothes are discussed as they are understood by consumers, as knitted sweaters, bunads (Norwegian national costumes), and home-made clothing. The review shows how these products, and especially the materials used in their production, have been crucial for the continued existence of the Norwegian textile industry. We argue that the concept “local clothes” can contribute to showcasing resources outside the global “fast fashion” manufacturing system.

Click here to read the full article (tandfonline.com)

Use phase of apparel: A Literature review for Life Cycle Assessment with focus on wool.

Kirsi Laitala, Ingun Grimstad Klepp & Beverley Henry

Summary

This report presents a literature review of clothing use phase. The purpose is to support improved methodological development for accounting for the use phase in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of apparel. All relevant textile fibres are included in the review. However, the main focus is on wool. We ask whether the use of wool has different environmental impacts than clothes in other fibres. The report builds on a review of literature from the past 20 years. The review showed that clothing made from different materials are used, and reused in different ways. Wool is washed differently as it has about ten degrees lower washing temperature than the average laundry in Europe. Wool is also more likely to be either dry-cleaned or washed by hand than other textiles. Moreover, when dried, it is less likely to be tumble-dried.

When comparing the number of days between the washes of different types of clothes, we found that respondents were likely to use their woollen products about twice as long between washes compared to their equivalent cotton products. We also found that woollen products had a longer average lifespan and were more likely to be reused or recycled. There is a lot of research-based information available concerning the use and re-use of clothing, and we believe there are sufficient results available on which to base LCA studies. Furthermore, we believe that environmental tools that compare different fibres but exclude use phase provide misleading results. Including the use phase in fibre ranking benchmark tools will improve the rigour and accuracy of these tools for all fibres, compared to reporting results for fibre production only. However, we have also shown that there are several methodological, conceptual and empirical knowledge gaps in existing literature.

Click here to read the full report (researchgate.net)

Global laundering practices: Alternatives to machine washing

Kirsi Laitala, Ingun Grimstad Klepp & Beverly Henry

Abstract

This article discusses laundering practices around the world including alternative methods such as washing by hand, airing, steaming, and dry-cleaning. These methods, which have received little attention in research, are often more suited toproducts made of wool, silk or other materials able to be cleaned using gentler techniques than more commonly used fibers such as cotton and synthetics. The material is based on extensive literature review from the past 20 years and reanalysis of previously unpublished survey data.The results show that washing by hand is common and that is the main laundering method in most rural areas of developing countries, but also significant for smaller portion of laundry in developed countries. Dry cleaning is less common, and mainly used for specific clothing items. Simple method such as airing can reduce the washing frequency, and thus reduce the environmental impacts resulting from the cleaning of clothes.

Click here to read the full article (oda.oslomet.no)

«Ullne» fakta om strikking og klær. Hjemmeproduksjon og gamle klær i velstands-Norge

Ingun Grimstad Klepp & Kirsi Laitala

Hjemmeproduksjon og gamle klær i velstands Norge» av Ingun Klepp og Kirsi Laitala inngår i et større prosjekt om grønn vekst gjennom kunnskap om bærekraftige klær i lokale verdikjeder med fokus på utnyttelse av norsk ull (KRUS). Studien viser at bruk av ull er utbredt i hele befolkningen. Det er imidlertid klare kjønns- og inntektsforskjeller i befolkningens forhold til ull. Kvinner kjøper og bruker ullplagg oftere enn menn. Noe under halvparten (43%) av kvinnene har selv strikket eller laget plagg og andre produkter av ull i siste året. Kun 4 prosent av mennene oppga det samme. Det er også en større andel av kvinner som har bunad enn menn. Superundertøy (syntetisk) er imidlertid mer populært for menn enn kvinner (hhv 78% og 67%). Respondenter med høy inntekt eier flere dyre ullplagg enn respondenter med lavere inntekt. Det er også slik at ullklær brukes lengre enn andre typer klær og mange av de eldste plaggene som fortsatt er i bruk er av ull. Interessen for hjemmeproduksjon og strikking er stigende i den norske befolkningen, spesielt blant yngre kvinner. Artikkelen konkluderer med at for å få en omlegging henimot bærekraftig klesforbruk er det viktig å fokusere på lang levetid, hjemmeproduksjon og verdier – både pekuniære og affektive – knyttet til klær.

Klikk her for å lese hele bokkapitlet (researchgate.com)